Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Sep;4(9):720-4.
The semaphorin 4D receptor controls invasive growth by coupling with Met
Giordano S, Corso S, Conrotto P, Artigiani S, Gilestro GF, Barberis D, Tamagnone L, Comoglio PM.
Semaphorins are cell surface and soluble signals that control axonal guidance. Recently, semaphorin receptors (plexins) have been discovered and shown to be widely expressed. Their biological activities outside the nervous system and the signal transduction mechanism(s) they utilize are largely unknown. Here, we show that in epithelial cells, Semaphorin 4D (Sema 4D) triggers invasive growth, a complex programme that includes cell#150;cell dissociation, anchorage-independent growth and branching morphogenesis. Interestingly, the same response is also controlled by scatter factors through their tyrosine kinase receptors, which share striking structural homology with plexins in their extracellular domain. We found that in cells expressing the endogenous proteins, Plexin B1 (the Sema 4D Receptor) and Met (the Scatter Factor 1/ Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor) associate in a complex. In addition, binding of Sema 4D to Plexin B1 stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity of Met, resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of both receptors. Finally, cells lacking Met expression do not respond to Sema 4D unless exogenous Met is expressed. This work identifies a novel biological function of semaphorins and suggests the involvement of an unexpected signalling mechanism, namely, the coupling of a plexin to a tyrosine kinase receptor.
Nature. 2002 Mar 14;416(6877):187-90.
Petrelli A, Gilestro GF, Lanzardo S, Comoglio PM, Migone N, Giordano S.
CNR-CIOS and Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Torino, 10126 Torino, Italy.
Ligand-dependent downregulation of tyrosine kinase receptors is a critical step for modulating their activity. Upon ligand binding, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor (Met) is polyubiquitinated and degraded; however, the mechanisms underlying HGF receptor endocytosis are not yet known. Here we demonstrate that a complex involving endophilins, CIN85 and Cbl controls this process. Endophilins are regulatory components of clathrin-coated vesicle formation. Through their acyl-transferase activity they are thought to modify the membrane phospholipids and induce negative curvature and invagination of the plasma membrane during the early steps of endocytosis. Furthermore, by means of their Src-homology 3 domains, endophilins are able to bind CIN85, a recently identified protein that interacts with the Cbl proto-oncogene. Cbl, in turn, binds and ubiquitinates activated HGF receptor, and by recruiting the endophilin-CIN85 complex, it regulates receptor internalization. Inhibition of complex formation is sufficient to block HGF receptor internalization and to enhance HGF-induced signal transduction and biological responses. These data provide further evidence of a relationship between receptor-mediated signalling and endocytosis, and disclose a novel functional role for Cbl in HGF receptor signalling.